6 edition of Toxicological risks of selected flame-retardant chemicals found in the catalog.
|Statement||Subcommittee on Flame-Retardant Chemicals, Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council.|
|Series||Compass series, Compass series (Washington, D.C.)|
|Contributions||National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Flame-Retardant Chemicals.|
|LC Classifications||RA1270.F54 T69 2000|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xx, 512 p. :|
|Number of Pages||512|
|ISBN 10||0585368732, 0309070473|
|LC Control Number||00700059|
In , the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) completed its assessment of the use of flame retardants for CPSC in its Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame Retardant Chemicals. The report concluded that eight of sixteen retardants that were evaluated pose little or no health risk. Based on this report, TDCPP is a widely used flame retardant in the U.S. and has been measured in water, dust, consumer products (upholstered furniture, baby products with polyurethane foam, and electronics), and air. Contact with dust appears to be the main source of exposure for consumers to TDCPP.
Replacement flame retardants present serious risks, caution scientists. New flame retardants escaping from our TVs, other electrical and electronic products, and children’s car seats are just as toxic as the flame retardants they’re intended to replace, according to a peer-reviewed study published today in Environmental Science & Technology Letters. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to plastics and foam products to make them difficult to burn. There are different kinds of PBDEs; some have only a few bromine atoms attached, while some have as many as ten bromine attached to the central molecule.
Flame retardants used in textiles generally include the following four types of chemical compounds. 21,22 Inorganic minerals such as aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and boron compounds exhibit their flame-retardant activity through physical effects, i.e. by insulating the fibre from the applied heat and example, boric acid and its hydrated salts undergo strong endothermic. Define and understand the concept of risk What is Risk Assessment? Gathering of information on toxic effects of a chemical Risk Characterization. Hazard Identification Collection of data Various sources Toxicological and epidemiological studies.
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Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals - NCBI Bookshelf. This report evaluates toxicological, epidemiological, and exposure data on the 16 specified flame-retardant (FR) chemicals, and characterizes risks to human health from exposure to furniture upholstery treated with such chemicals.
It is hoped that the findings of the report will be useful to the US Consumer Product Safety. Subcommittee members were chosen for their recognized expertise in toxicology, pharmacology, epidemiology, chemistry, exposure assessment, risk assessment, and biostatistics.
Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals is organized into 18 chapters and two appendices. Chapter 2 describes the risk assessment process used by the subcommittee in determining the risk associated with potential exposure to the various FR chemicals.5/5(1).
IGNITION of upholstered furniture by small open flames from matches, cigarette lighters, and candles is one of the leading causes of residential-fire deaths in the United States. On average, each year sinceabout 90 deaths (primarily of children), injuries, and property losses amounting to 50 million dollars have resulted from such fires.
IGNITION of upholstered furniture by small open flames from matches, cigarette lighters, and candles is one of the leading causes of residential-fire deaths in the United States.
These fires accounted for about 16% of civilian fire deaths in On average, each year sinceabout 90 deaths (primarily of children), injuries, and property losses amounting to 50 million dollars have. Toxicological risks of selected flame-retardant chemicals. [National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Flame-Retardant Chemicals,;] -- This report evaluates toxicological, epidemiological, and exposure data on the 16 specified flame-retardant (FR) chemicals, and characterizes risks to human health from exposure to furniture.
Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals Ulsamer et al. () summarized the results of an unpublished chronic dermal-toxicity study of TDCPP in rabbits. Rabbits were exposed to TDCPP or TRIS at g/kg for 90 d (frequency of dermal application not stated). Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals is organized into 18 chapters and two appendices.
THERE are limited toxicokinetic and toxicity data available on alumina trihydrate. Therefore, this chapter reviews the physical and chemical properties, toxicokinetics, toxicological, epidemiological and exposure data on alumina trihydrate and a number of chemically related aluminum compounds.
The bioavailability of aluminum is dependent upon its form, however, the underlying mechanism of. This report evaluates toxicological, epidemiological, and exposure data on the 16 specified flame-retardant (FR) chemicals, and characterizes risks to human health from exposure to furniture upholstery treated with such chemicals.
THIS chapter reviews the physical and chemical properties, toxicokinetics, toxicological, epidemiological, and exposure data on hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). The subcommittee used that information to characterize the health risk from exposure to HBCD.
The subcommittee also identified data gaps and recommended research relevant for determining the health risk from exposure to HBCD. Read the full text of Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals for free on the Web, as well as more than 1, other publications from the National Academies.
Printed copies are available for purchase from the National Academy Press Web site or at the mailing address in the letterhead; tel. () or Flame retardants (FRs) are used in most consumer products and textiles to comply with current flammability standards.
After the restriction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, a large number of chemically diverse replacement FRs are increasingly used, but the risk they represent is not yet properly evaluated and their toxicity pathways are still poorly understood. We collected in vivo. Unlike many existing books on toxicology that cover either toxicity of a particular substance or toxicity of chemicals on particular organ systems, Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals: A Practical Guide lays out the principle activities of conducting a toxicological risk assessment, including international approaches and methods for the risk assessment of chemical Reviews: 1.
Quantitative Assessment of Potential Health Effects from the use of Fire Retardant Chemicals in Mattresses. Final Rule for the Flammability (Open Flame) of mattress Sets Tab D.
January Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction. Sol Bobst, in History of Risk Assessment in Toxicology, The Narrative of the History of Toxicological Risk Assessment. This book is admittedly narrow in scope, but this is also due to the fact that toxicological risk assessment is a niche practice by definition.
However, the practice of risk assessment spans several industries, including food, industrial chemicals, consumer products.
‘Toxicological risk assessment for beginners’ by Torres and Bobst is a very useful and handy book, written in a simple and lucid language making the concepts easy to grasp. It touches all important topics including hazard identification, dose response, risk characterization, epidemiology, emerging issues, resources and finally some case Reviews: 3.
The chemicals are widely used in products such as household furniture, textiles, and electronic equipment. Many flame retardant chemicals can persist in the environment, and studies have shown that some may be hazardous to people and animals.
Read the Flame Retardant. Definition of toxicological dose descriptors (LD50, LC50, EC50, NOAEL, LOAEL, etc) Are there thresholds for genotoxic carcinogens Chemical Risk Assessment Basics - Ecotoxicity and E-fate. No Exposure = No Risk. An expression used in toxicology is "no exposure = no risk." Exposure assessment is a key step in the risk assessment process because without an exposure, even the most toxic chemical does not present a threat.
Our understanding of potential exposures to chemicals has grown significantly since approximately Toxicological Risks Of Selected Flame-retardant Chemicals Toxicology And Environmental Health Information Resources: The Role Of The National Library Of.
Man-made chemicals have become a part of everyday life. There are ab chemicals in commerce, and about 2, new chemicals are introduced every year. Very few of these chemical have had adequate toxicological studies to evaluate their health effects on humans and wildlife.
Published under the title of ‘Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals’, the study reviews potential non-cancer and cancer effects of 16 selected flame retardants used in furniture fabrics.
33 The selection of flame retardants was based on: (a).This flame retardant is an additive primarily used in polystyrene foam building materials. The primary risk to humans is from leaching out of products and getting into indoor dust.
Low levels of HBCD have also been found in some food products. It has been shown to have effects on the brain, and immune and reproductive.